Volcanoes® is a registered
trademark of Earthuare
Computer Services Volcanoes®/
upon which this product Is based/
is copyright 1981. 1987 and
Volcanoes® Deluxe is coyright 1987.
Apple IIGS is a registered trademark
of Apple Computer, Inc Apple® makes
no warranties whatsoever for this product
See inside for Earthware warranties.
Volcanoes Deluxe Handbook
£artmt>are Computer Services
P.O. tox 30039
Eugene, Oft 97403
Tef. <503 ) 344 -3383
U able, of Contents
Betting Started pages 1-10
P.Q specific information pages I S
BS/Hpple II pages S ID
History of Illrangelia pages 11-15
Uolcanology pages 16-17
Summaries of Volcanic Eruptions pages 18-23
Investigation Descriptions pages 26-37
Instructor/User IRanual pages 38-11
Pre Lesson pages 15-50
Blossary pages 51-57
Bibliography pages 58 58
Setting Started: Qeneral Information for HII Users of
You can play Volcanoes* without reading any
of the documentation because the instructions are all
printed on the screen. However, it is important that
you Know what the various investigations do so that
you may interpret the data correctly.
Illrangelia is a mythical land, the existence of
which is still being debated among scientists. The
positioning of the various types of volcanoes in
close proHimity is contrary to nature and is
attributed to artistic license used to create a
game playable on the computer screen.
Volcanoes* uses a game format to teach
diverse attitudes and skills and to present a great
deal of information. Being professional educators
•e recognize that you may view this as an unusual
approach to teaching. The advantages of th.s format
include improved student motivation and better
retention of material. Hmong its disadvantages .s that
you may need extra time to prepare the material
based upon your use of the program. This manual .s
intended to help you reduce the time needed to
spend preparing to use Volcanoes** . and
incorporates suggestions for effective use of the
One turn in the game is equivalent to three
months in the "rear' world. Be suggest that you
play a given game for no longer than two hours.
Children in the sixth grade through adult can
benefit from using the program.
Vou will need to know soma basis vocabulary to
utilize this name. Volaano&s& is assigned to
encourage thinking and to teach concepts essential
to understanding the volcanic process and the
mechanisms used to predict eruptions.
The new deluxe versions for the PO compatibles
and the Hpple HQS begin in the ijear 2000 while the
old Hpple II versions begin in 1980.
Permissions Branted Original Purchasers:
Persission to reproduce the copyrighted
Materials is granted to the original purchaser only
for use in his/her classes. The right to distribute
the program is limited to Earthware® and persons
authorized by Earthware®. This means that no
teacher shall make copies for distribution to other
schools thoughout a school district. H bach up
diskette may be made for the purpose of archiving.
(Baps and copies of information about the
investigations ma 14 also be reproduced. Permission is
also granted to print any of the pictures on the dish
for classroom use and study if you have a version
with the print function.
Additional disks are available at $10* each
through your dealer or Earthware. Special
configurations are possible through Earthware. Lab
packs may be ordered through dealers, distributors
or Earthware. Oprices subject to change without
Using fhe Haps
The maps are designed to allow for 1. 3. 3. or
q players. If only one person is playing, he/she
gets to supervise the entire territory. If two are
plotiing. then the first player will need maps 1 and 3
and the second player 3 and 1. If three are play.ng
then maps one. tour, and five will be utilized. This
program can work very well for an entire class in
teams or with individuals.
Vou will find that you have two copies of each
map that have numbers one through five. The maps
have "h" and "y" coordinates marked on them. Hs
you play the game and do the investigations, you will
gain valuable information about the volcanoes in your
area. This information should be recorded as you
play the game to determine which volcanoes are the
most likely to erupt.
The maps have coordinates that begin at "IT in the
lower left hand corner and increase as you move
toward the right.* Vou probably know how to locate a
point on the map using the "h" and "y" coordinates
Vou will recall that the "n" anis runs horizontally and
the "y" vertically. Oslightly less clear with old Hpple
Regarding Budgets and Oredif abilities:
Uolaanoas ® is designed so that you may
change the warning levels for areas other than your
own BUT if you set the warning levels of other
players recklessly, the credibilities of all players
decrease but in varying degrees, flood pred.ct.ons
can reduce damages or lives lost in eruptions by
g.v.ng t.mely warning, and increase the oreditabilities
of all players, in particular the player in charge of
the area in which the eruption occured and mho made
the accurate prediction.
4 B ^ a1tt dB P Bnd U P°" «»oth public and scientific
ered.tab.ht.es as well as the tax base of the areas
for wh.ch you are responsible. Tan bases generally
« ro " " ,lh «»ut are diminished by damaging
eruptions so if is important to mahe good
pred.otions. Ci.e. In real life if a large building is
das . T ad bl L fir V oannof be usad a » ° ,fioa »P«°«
unt.l ,f , s rebu.lt. While it is unusable. taHes on that
property are diminished.} In the game of life, one
must cooperate to understand natural phenomena and
to l.m.t the damaging effects of dangerous natural
processes, ttoioanoos* contains elements of
competitiveness but these are less prominent than in
other strategy games.
Betting Started Using the PO or Oompatibles:
Hardware configuration for either the IB ■ PO®
or compatibles is 338N of memory, color monitor and
one or t.o floppy dish drives. 3.33 inches. Vou will
need the Microsoft® DOS. version 3.0 or later.
To boot the program simpfy insert the System
Baster dish in drive *W\ Shen the dish in "FT stops
runn.ng. replace that dish with your Volcanoes dish
and type "Doloano". This program may be used with
a one or a two drive system. The latter is
preferable because if you boot with the first drive
■nsert the Volaanoos ® dish in "FT and a formatted
d.sh in ■"B", you mill be all ready to save your game
•hen the time comes.
flow that the title screen is up you will be
ashed to enter the name of the volcanologist who is
in charge of Hfringham. etc. Prior to booting the
game, decide who your team leaders are and gather
all necessary materials so that valuable time will not
be lost. Bap grids are only on the printed sheets
which accompany the game. If you lose them, you
must get additional copies from Earthware.
Saving Barnes with PB Compatibles:
There is very little room for saving games on
the program dish and therefore it is best to have a
formatted blank diskette ready to use for saving
your games. Vou should use the same dish every
time and update the game by saving if using the
same name or add new games by changing the name.
Vou may exit and save a game at the end of a
season only. Therefore, you must watch your time if
you are using the game in a classroom situation. Vou
might select "flo" when ashed whether you wish to
continue playing if time is getting short and save the
game. Vou may then re-enter the saved game and
play until time is up. Simply select "exit", type the
name of your game, and press return to save your
The PO version is a more graphic program
than the old version and it is not copy protected.
Bmong the enhancements, you have an Information
Soman that is intended to give you an idea of the
layering of the earth as scientists currently believe
it to be configured.
Longine On and Beginning Play Using the Apple
Before qou can plaq qou should have the
following hardware configuration: Apple HQs with at
least 3I2N expansion RHffl. one or two 3.3 unidish
drivon, NOB Monitor, and mouse*. The* plaq is anhanoad
with a megabqte of memorq beoause pictures that
must be reloaded from dish, become memory resident,
thus speeding up the sane.
Loading Instructions for the 8S Version of
...with one dish drive C3.33
Place qour ProOOS IS version 3.1 or newer
dish in the first drive. When the drive light goes out.
remove the dish and insert qour Volcanoes dish.
Select. Volcanoes. sqslS from either the Program
Launcher or frow the Deshtop.
...with two dish drives C3.53...
Place ijour ProOOS IB version 3.1 or newer dish
in the first drive, the one that runs first when qou
turn on the computer. When the light goes out.
remove the dish an insert ijour UalaanoasG>
dish, now follow the same procedure as listed above
for use with one drive.
Logging on is simple because all of the areas
are in need of a volcanologist. Vou will learn a bit
about the area before qou decide to worh in anq
particular area. Fit this time qou should have maps
with grids of qour particular area. Hs mentioned
before, the grid does not appear anqwhere else
except on the printed maps.
Sequence of Plaq on the BS=
Valuations™ uses the Deshtop environment
Select "lew Oame" from under "Fife". HI Ihte po«"
qou will be ashed to decide the level of d.ff.cultq
and tell the computer how manq are P'^H- Then "
uou will be ashed to enter qour name. Utter qou
enter qour nameCsD as scientists! for an area the
screen -ill turn a prettq hue- and rema.n verq blanh
until qou select the (BEDES ! » ^SLS^iJS^m
select an investigation from under HDEES
selecting studies until qou have tr.ed all of them or
exhausted qour curiositq Cor budget! with regard to
qour volcanoes. Set warning levels for qour volcano
and turn over the reins of power to another
scientist bq selecting another name under plaqer
Remember qour oreditabilitq depends upon accurate
The advantage of the game in this format is
that qou maq decide on the basis on one
investigation to change warning levels for an area
and be able to do that at once rather than at the
end of qour turn. In addition, plaqers maq go in
whatever order theq wish owing to the OS format.
Saving the Bawe and Deleting Files on the OS
and the llpple II
Using the 8S. qou maq select "Save" at anq time
and exit the program. If qou have investigat-ons that
are on the screen with the windows open at the t.me
that qou decide to go to "File" and select Save .
that information will (10T be saved.
Investigations with results to be given "flexf
Season" will be saved. Therefore, if qou are in the
middle of a Qas Analysis, qou must decide to either
finish the investigation or to abort and re-do it newt
session. In the latter ease, qou have alreadq been
charged for the investigation and so it would be
bast to finish it. Clt is a "dash in advanoa" tqpe of
situation— an experience oonsistant with the "real
The tipple II save routine is complex owing to
dish space and file accessibility. The history of
vulcanise is on the front of the dish and the game
is on the bash. Each tiwe qou save a gawe both of
those files are created or updated. CDish fronfsids
files eontain the prefix "H." and backside files "3. "J
Vou should have an instruction sheet for the Hpple II
series "delete gawe" funotion. If qou do not. please
request it frow us. it is vital inforwation. Use no
write-protect tabs on this version!
Printing Pictures Using the 88:
The pictures on the dish waq be printed using
an Iwagewriter II printer if qou have the QS version.
Vou select "Print" which is under "File" and qou will
be ashed which pictures qou wish to print. Pictures
waq be printed in color if qou have a color ribbon.
Volcanoes^ Beluxe— Benu Descriptions for the BS
■ami functions for the GS* version are
discussed below for qour oonvience. Vou waq
choose to photooopq these for classroom use. if qou
are using this program in that situation.
flaw: Use this to start a new game.
Load: Loads an old game that was
saved on dish.
Save : Saves the current game.
BJliaa Bll : (Hoses all of the windows
Pxinl: Prints the eruption pictures,
the wap of Hrangelia. Earth's crust,
and a ourrent history of eruptions.
Quit : Quits the gawe.
Edif- This wenu option is not used bq this
Studies: These are the various
investigations which are performed on the
volcanoes. Detailed information is to be
found in the "Investigation" section of this
■anual Holia* that aoma of fha maohinas
will not funotion if qou do not
remember to turn them on!
Plaqera: This option anablaa users to
select order of plaqera to aonduaf the
•nvesf. B ations. set warning levels, or go to
Hisloxq: Read about the recent
hisforq of voloanisa with tha
micro fiehe viewer.
Earth's Hm«l= View the earth's
orust in a oolorful out-aaaij
I camalia i Shoes tha map of
Mannings: Set the warning lavel for
the inhabitants of ijour araaCs].
Qaneral Historical Background
fllairante Perulera. commanding a squadron of
three ships and ordered bq the Spanish government
to search for a florthwest Passage, first sighted
several of the volcanoes of the Mrangelia region in
August of 1788. He named lit. Asuncion, Boca Qarrada
Peah. and fit. Fuego Cwhich mas erupting when first
sighted] of the archipelago now named for Captain
Hfringhaa of H.IB.S. Astrolabe, who made landfall there
in Julq 1788. Perulera also named El Matador on the
mainland, from a fancied resemblence of that cinder
cona and the shield volcano of Rift Mountain
Coriginallq named El ToroD to a bullfighter and bull.
He Cor rather, his lookouts; the Rlmirante is thought
to have been near-sighted] must have sean manq
other volcanic edifices of the region, but there is
no mention of thaa in the expedition's logbooks
preserved in archives at Barcelona.
Perulera'a ships anchored just outside Dog Lag
Harbour, between Qeorge Island and Oharlotte Island
to take on water, firewood, and whatever food could
be obtained Cchieflq smoked salmon and dried
berries, according to logbook entries] bq trade with
tha local inhabitants.
From later writings bq Sir Eduardo Qhurruca.
aboard as a volunteer [?] naturalist, it is clear that
at least one small partq from the ahips climbed the
northern slopes of It. Fuego to the rim of the
summit caldara. and observed fire fountains and lava
flows erupting from the South Rift Zone. Qhurruca
describes how the tongues of lava divided as theq
flowed around the base of what we now know as
Rolling Stone Butte; his description allows us to
identify confidently the produafs of the 178S
eruption, even though lit. Fuego has erupted quite
frequently since then.
The Perulera expedition put out to sea rather
hurriedly, apparently baoausa they were alarmed bq
signs of an impending eruption of (it. Asuncion. The
logbook does not state aleartq where the alarming
symptoms originated, but because Perutera's ships
had not futlq repfenished their essential stores, it
seems likely that the volcano shoeing signs of
aofivitq was thought to be potentially more dangerous
than was fflt. Fusgo. Perulera did not disoovsr the
splendid anchorage of Qeorgeville Harbour, and
certainly his ships would have been seriously
threatened by even a moderate eruption of the
Asuncion volcano, if the wind had shifted towards a
more northerly bearing.
When Hfringham sighted the archipelago that now
bears his name, not quite two years later, lit. Fuego
was quiet but Asuncion was emitting minor steam
bursts and ash-laden blasts, and a very
fresh-looking fava flow exhibiting an alignment of
steam vents, apparently where it had overriden a
small stream valley Cforming laharsl. was seen on
Hsumcion's southeastern slopes. Although Hfringham
commented at some length on this spectacle in his
logbook, no such flow was mentioned by Perulera. but
the omission may not be significant. On the whole, it
seems likely that Asuncion did indeed erupt a lava
flow between Rugust of 1788 and July of 1788; this
lava seems to have been buried by products of
more-recent eruptions of the voloano.
Hfringham found and was much taken with
Beorgeville Harbour, although his enthusiasm for .t
was somewhat tempered by the light shower of
voT.."™.!. fromV Hshfal. Cnamed by Hfli« B ha. in
honour of the occasion} that was earned by an east
wind to sprinkle the rigging and deck of h.s sh.p
during 31st to 33rd of July. 1788. CThis w.nd
direction is unusual; west winds prevail in -range ha
during most of the year.3 Hfringham reoogn.zed I the
protential hazards of eruptions from Hsuno.or. and
Hshfall. but seems to have been unaware hat
Beorgeville Harbour itself was formed by lavas from
the Deadfall Butte cinder cone, and could .n some
future eruption be closed off by such a lava flow.
His report emphasized the advantages of the
harborage and the abundance of natural resources
such as fish. furs, and timber far more than the
volcanic hazards, and was instrumental .n
encouraging the first European settlement, at
Qeorgeville in 1801.
though many ships visited the archipelago and
the coastal areas of the adjacent mainland dur.ng the
early 1800 s. and there were permanent European
settlements at Beorgeville and Qamas « a «^* C ' a,er
re named QamasportJ. we have regrettably-l.ttle
information about volcanic activity dur.ng the f.rst
part of the nineteenth century, perhaps because .t
was so common as to be unremarkable. He know of
an eruption of wide spread air-fall ash from Boca
Qerrada during the winter of 1815. and there are
somewhat-confusing reports of what probably was an
ash flow tuff CignimbriteJ erupted from Bumulus Peak
that destroyed good fur-trapping grounds northwest
of that voloano during the summer of 18diJ.
Reoonnaissanaa geologic mapping of coastal
Brigalorn suggests that a tongue of this ash flow
may have moved down the Talogit River valley nearly
to tha present site of Talogit dity. Precise date of
the eruption of this ignimbrite has not been
Until the ISSOs. the areas east of the dumulus
Peak—Skyline Peak— St. Hshfatl axis were very
sparsely settled. Beginning in that decade
transcontinental Migration and the growth of
agricultural settlements along the rivers of interior
derkin changed that general area from a
largely-ignored hinterland to one of considerable
economic importance. This process was greatly
accelerated by discovery of placer gotd deposits
east of the city of Salmon dreek. which grew rapidly
as a consequence. Salmon dreek now is a mining,
lumbering, and manufacturing center rivalling the
older communities of deorgeville dishing, textiles,
manufacturing, and shipping] and damasport
Cmanufacturing. shipbuilding, and shipping mood
Four smaller cities are located in the region.
Hrbol dreek. at the south end of Prince Ernest
Island, depends on fishing, paper mills, and lumber.
Talogit dity. across Hfringham Passage to the east
of Hrbol dreek. ships food products, building stone,
and lumber, Bolfridge at the confluence of Thunder
River and the South Fork of (Jamas River, about 33
kilometers dE of dumufus Peak, is known for forest
products, tourism, a major wildlife park, and outdoor
recreation. Indian Ford on the north bank of tha
main stem of damas River, about 10 kilometres SB of
■t- Hshfall. spaoializes in manufacturing, food
processing, and dairy produots and their distribution,
and is a transportation hub.
The small towns in Hfringham are dog Leg
Harbour and driftwood Cdharlotte Island! and Emily
CPrince Ernest Island!. Ratohetville is located in
coastal Brigalorn. just west of Ratchet mountain, and
deerfrail is in interior Brigalorn. about 3H kilometres
east of dumulus Peak. In damasport Cthe name of
both one of the principal cities of Hrangelia and of
the province in which that city is located}. Black
Sand Beach is on the coast, just north of the Rift
Mountain shield volcano, and Slide is about 38
kilometres east of tha city of damasport. Small towns
of derkin are Otter Rook and Seal dity Csouth and
north, respectively, of the derkin River in coastal
derkin! and dreentree. along the upper damas River,
about 40 kilometres SB of Salmon dreek.
The Major volcanoes of Uirangelia have been
classified, somewhat arbitrarily, info fhree types:
andesifio composite volcanoes, basaltic shield
voloanoas. and oindar cones. The five andesifio
volcanoes are much like those found at and near
continental margins around the Pacific, except they
sees to erupt sore frequently than is commonly
observed elsewhere. Reconnaissance studies have
shown that they tend to erupt pyroclastic materials
Cair-fall ash tuff blanhats and ash-flow tuffs] wore
frequently than lavas, although this conclusion may
be wrong because the lavas tend to be restricted to
the slopes of the volcanoes, and the tuffs are
tqpioallq widespread. These volcanoes are called
"composite" because theq are composed of nearlq
equal amounts of lavas and of fragmenfal materials
lihe tuffs and lahars. but of course we do not Know,
even roughly, what the proportions of these eruption
products are in anq composite none because the
youngest materials veneer and hide the older ones,
and all the cones have been eroded onlq to a minor
Three basaltic shield volcanoes Cone in the
Rfringham archipelago-- for which a better term might
be the "Rfringham island arc" — and two that are part
of the mainland coastal belt of volcanic vents] in the
region erupt frequentlq. sometimes from rift zones
that cut these volcanic edifices, sometimes from the
summit caldera found in each. Eruptions from vents at
or near the summit tend to precede those from rift
zones, much as has bean verq well-documented for
Hawaiian shield volcanoes in their youthful stages of
development. Fire founfaining is common, especially
during early stages of summit eruptions, and often
spectacular but rarely hazardous. Lavas, especially
those erupted from rift zones low on the ftanhs of
the shields, tend to cause most of the damage and
the rare injuries associated with this style of
Although the andesitic composite cones and the
basaltic shield volcanoes of this region are in many
ways quite similar to their counterparts elsewhere,
some at least of the cinder cones of this region
appear to be unusual. In general, it is rare to
observe multiple eruptions, separated bq quiescent
periods of manq qears. from cinder cones. Theq
tend, rather, to erupt during a fairlq short time-span,
building the entire edifice Ca cinder cone, sometimes
with a lava flow breaking out of its base late in the
eruptive cqcte] and then becoming extinct.
Fragmentarq evidence Ce.g.. see outlines of eruption
histories for Deadfall Butte, loss Mountain, and
Rolling Stone Butte] suggests that at least some of
the cinder cones of this region have erupted
repeatedlq. It is probably prudent to consider all of
them as dormant unless detailed studies of individual
cinder cones suggest that theq are indeed extinct.
Perhaps some of the region s cinder cones are in
realitq verq qouthful composite volcanoes, that simply
have not qet grown to sizes that would make it easy
for us to recognize them as such.
Volcanic eruptions in the region since 1875
have been reasonably well- documented; summaries of
the historic records of these eruptions, 1873 to
3000 are given below, following tabulations that will
help you to Keep in mind the names and locations of
Sum mm ins of Reoords of Uolaanio Eruptions
ML Bsunoipn— probably, erupted a lava flow
during the period 1783 to 1788.
—Between about 1780 and 1830 it
erupted four igniabrites and at
least siN air-fall ash tuffs.
— It may have erupted a lava flow
in 1833; it erupted a large
air-fafl ash, aooowpanied by a
lahar whiah aaused 18 deaths
and auoh damage in Qeorgeville.
— Hn igniabrite eruption whiah
aaused oinor danage to forests
oooured in 1833 but apparently,
has been dormant froa 1843 to
—In 1881 the alledgedly ''dead'"
voloano ease to life and
erupted a targe ash-fall tuff and
a lahar. This eruption aaused the
deaths of 1180 people and auoh
daaage in Qeorgeville.
— 1881 the voloano erupted a
saall igniabrite whiah resulted in
little daaage to the surrounding
aountrijsida whiah had not yet
recovered froa the great
eruption of 1881.
—in 1883-8 steaa was seen
cosing froa the aain vent but
since then the volcano has been
Boca Oerrada Peah- erupted extensive air-fall
ash in 1813. and again in 188d.
1902. and 1913.
— Igniabrites were erupted in
1883. 1801. and 1913. There were
ainor eruptions froa 1913 to
dormant froa 1930 to 1980.
— Smoke and steaa preceeded a
saall eruption in 1883 but there
has been no activity since then.
Quaulus Peah— The eruption activity of this
volcano is poorly documented;
—probable eruption of an
igniabrite in 1833.
— Hir fall ash erupted in 1929.
1933. 1948. 1833. and 1939. In
the last eruption siH lives were
lost as there were prospectors
in the area at the tiae of the
—Igniabrite eruption in 1943.
— Boraant froa 1939 to present.
Skyline Peak's eruptive history is poorlij hnotun;
as Ions ago as 1873. eruptions
from it and from nearby cinder
oones have not been reliably
— It way have erupted as many
as ten tines between 1800 and
—It erupted an ignimbrite in
1884. with heavy damage to
forests northeast of the peak.
—It appears to have been
dorwant unfit the present time.
■f. fishtail— was nawed after a large euption in
1788. Rt least thirteen eruptions
of ash. the dates of whioh are
poorly known, were seen frow
Qeorgeville between 1803 and
1873; additional eruptions are
recorded for 1803. 1831. 1838.
1838. and 1843.
— The history of eruptions of
ignimbrites. lahars. and lavas is
unknown. It has been dorwant
frow 1813 to 3000.
Bt. Fuego erupted lava and vent agglowerate
Cfrow a rawarkable fire fountain]
in 1788. and at least five lavas
between then and 1880.
— Known lava eruptions ooeured
in 1803. 1808. 1813. 1818, 1838.
1833. 1831, 1838. 1811. 1881.
1883. 1883. 1883. 1883. 1888 and
1883. flo eruptions have oooured
Rift Bountain-erupted lava at laasHhraa or
four tiwes between 1832 and
— Lava erupted in 1883. 1887.
1883. 1814. 1833. 1S2S. 1830.
1831. 1843. 1844. 1830. 1832.
1833. 1884. 1883. 1881. 1882.
1883. 1880 and 1884 and 1883.
— flo eruptions since 1883.
Flat Top Bountain— experienced fifteen lava
eruptions between 1804 Cwhen
lava was seen at the the
Western Rift ZoneD and 1813
were observed trow Qeorgeville.
but except for the 1804 and the
1803 events. eNaot dates are
—Eruptions frow the Eastern Rift
Zone prior to 1840 way have
gone unnoticed. Lava erupted in
1817. 1830. 1843. 1833. 1880. and
-Dorwant frow 1878 to 3000.
Deadfall Butte— erupted air-fall ash in 1803.
ISIS. ISIS. IS3I Cseven lives
lost, earn* injured], 1833. 18SI.
1881. 1830. 1831. and 1838.
— It erupted lava in 1818. 1834.
1883. I88S. 1833. 1833. 1837.
1843. 1847. 1830. 1833. I8S0.
1883. 1887. I8S8 and 1871.
—It has been dormant from 1871
Rollins Stone Butte— lihe its neighbor. Boss
Bountain. is hidden from the
Qeorgeville area by Bt. Fuego.
and often hidden from Oamasport
by persistent fog in Hfringham
— Bany eruptions prior to 1843
way have gone unnoticed.
— fish erupted in 1833 and again
in 1843; a series of eight ash
eruptions, terminated by a lava
flow, ooourred during the period
1873 to 1883 and was studied
with some oare.
dormant from 1883 to 3000.
Boss Bountain— Lihe Rolling Stone. Boss is
difficult to observe and many
eruptions prior to 1843 may have
gone unnotieed. Lava flows
erupted in 1833 and 1883; air fall
ash in 1838. 1838. 18B4. 18S8.
— Dormant from 1873 until the
present year of 3000.
Dogwood Bountain— is named after a common
tree in the forest dominating it-
Do record of eruptions is
Ratchet Bountain- despite its location in a zone
of heavy rainfall, is lightly
vegetated and may therefore
have erupted vigorously within
the past few hundreds of years.
—Do known eruptions.
Rumble Butte— is moderately well-vegetated; no
Bear Olaw Butte— is heavily forested, except on
the surfaces of a relatively
recent lava flow that issued from
the northeast part of its base.
—Do known eruptions
Salt Lick Bountain— sits on metamorphio rooks and
relatively old sedimentary rooks;
it is lightly vegetated, but has
no history of known eruptions.
Broken Thumb Butte— erupted lava in 1823 and
air-fall ash in 1818 and 183S.
--IBinor steam blasts vara
observed in 1883. 1883. 1883.
and 1888. dormant iron 1888 to
El ■atador--is heavily vegetated and presumably,
has not erupted for at least
several hundred years.
Bubbling Springs lountain hot springs beneath
the Mountain for anion it is
—it is lightly vegetated and may
have erupted during the period
1887 to 1811.
Broken Fish 8ountain— must have erupted at
least two air-fall ash blankets
and one lava floe sinoe 1873
■hen it was desoribed in a
trapper's journal. The dates of
these eruptions are not known.
—It has been dormant from 1833
to the present.
Forked Tongue Butte— is named after the
'forked' lava flow that issued
from its base on the (18 side.
This lava oovsrs ash that is
probably froa the eruption of Mt.
Rshfall eruption of 1788, but
oould be younger. It «
overlain by three dist.ngu.shable
air fall layers, frow unknown
-Bor-ant fro- at least 1838 until
Byke Butte is na-ed after
prominent rad.at.ng d.kes.
Lposed by erosion on .ts 3 and
(IE sides. Bpparently dorwant tor
hundreds of years.
— — i-js srjr-"
joined by a saddle of moderate
-Bonejo is a large edifioe with
sowe vegetation and no h.story
high elevation, wnere s
plant oover after eruptions .s
slow, yet it «» ba ab ° Ul
a « well vegetated as are
neighboring areas. Bo known
History of volcanic Eruptions Caftar 3000]:
Vour computer haeps track of alt voloanio
eruptions reported in Hrangolia after 3000 CFor
■nforaatior. on .hat is hno.n about arupfions before
cJUUO. at the time you took up your research
pos.t.on. saa the Smmarias saation above]. Vou can
oa up those records, to remind yourself and uour
colleagues about which volaanoas have been aative
recently, and how dangerous they have baen. II
shield volcano that has erupted recently is
aoderately likely to erupt a B ain in the near future.
I here may be either a series of closely timed
eruptions Iron, the other hinds of volcanoes, or one
or two eruptions followed by long periods
Infrared Scan of an Urea:
The purpose of this investigation is to find "hot
spots in an area that .ay indicate volcanic hazards.
Baah g rn i mrt : If magma has bean stored in a
shallow chamber for a fa. years or .ore. the haat
flo.mg fro. the magma into the surrounding rook can
act to raise the ta.peratures of the rooks and soils
at the Earths surface near the magma chamber
Ihese elevated temperatures can be detected by a
variety of types of measurements [placing your hand
on the ground to test if it feels .arm is flOT one of
them!]. However, you should nota that if a magma
chamber is deap. or small, or young, or if lots of
groundwater is flo.ing over the fop of it and carries
a.ay its heat, it might not be detected even by a
very careful survay of surface ta.paraturas. Rlso.
human activities of .any different hinds produce
heat, and if you are not careful about your
interpretations you could mis-identity "hot spots"
that result from human activities as signatures of
Method: spaoa satellites that are instrumented
to survey earth resources, and specifically to
examine the Earth's surface in infrared light Cthe
wavelengths of light that are longer than those we
can detect with our eyes, and are profusely emitted
by warm or hot objects], pass over IHrangelia and
are available for your use. However, the sensors on
those satellites are not .ell-suited to penetrate
cloud cover, which is very common in western
■rangelia during the .inter and parts of the autumn
and spring. Hn alternative is to use infrared sensors
mounted on airplanes, if the satellite images are not
available Cor just to wait for the weather to clear].
In either case, the data on intensities of infrared
light that .ere recorded by the instruments you
chose to use .ill be "massaged" by a computer, and
the locations of "hot spots", if any are found, will be
reported to you. Vou must then interpret that
Seismic Survey of a Volcano:
The aim of this investigation is to look for
volcanic tremor or other evidence of impending
Background : Seismic signals are waves
travelling through the Earth that are produced by
natural events. They include but are not li.ited to
loaves fro* earthquakes. H partioular hind of seismic
signal that is important in studying voloanoes is
"volcanic tremor", the fairly-regular vibrations
caused by magma moving through volaanie "plumbing
systems", tin a sense, voloanoes often hue to
themselves when they are pumping their working fluid
- magma -from one plaoe to another. The humming is
in some ways similar to tones produced bu, a eind
instrument, sueh as an organ or a flute, although of
course the working fluid-air in one ease, molten
rooK in the other— is very different.] Movement of
magma within a volcano precedes almost all eruptions,
although wagwa can wove and then simply stay within
the volcano, rather than erupting.
Looal seises, usually caused bu, swall
earthquakes within or near the volcanic edifice, also
oan be symptoms of internal readjustments that way
precede eruptions. In typical looal seises, a burst of
energy, signals the arrival of the seismic waves at
the seiswoeeter. and the intensity of the waves then
dies away fairly smoothly. This is because, although
there are different hinds of seismic waves that
travel at different velocities, when theu. are
generated close to the seiswoweter that detects
thee, the waves have not traveled far enough to
sort thewselves out according to their velocities In
volaanie regions, most looal seises are too weah to
be deteoted at any substantial distance from their
souroes. so that if your seismometers reoord looal
seises, you can be fairly certain that theu originated
m or near the partioular voloano you are studying.
Teleseisws Cthose that have travelled a long way]
eill show a pair of distinof first arrivals, initially of
the "primary wave" Cwhioh travels faster], then of
the "secondary wave". They are likely to appear in
your seismic records, but do not help you to predict
volcanic aotivity in your areas.
Method : You have available to you a number of
seiswoweters that oan be set up to operate
remotely, recording seismic events and telemetering
by radio their records when they are directed to do
so by a central data-processing installation. They
are relatively light-weight Cno seiswoweter is really
"light-weight", because the part of it that actually
records wave motion must be massive enough to
resist moving easily, through its inertia, when the
ground begins trembling under it], and can be set up
almost anywhere on the slopes of a volcano. The
computer that processes the data will report to you
the average number of seiswio events with intensities
CRichter magnitudes! greater than three recorded
per month, and will show you a selection of typical
seiswio records for you to examine and interpret,
flote that if you choose to put lots of seismometers
on a particular volcano, you will almost certainly
defeat wore events than if you had put fewer
instruments in the field. Thus, the number of
fairly-energetic events, although it is partly
dependent on the internal state of the voloano. is
also partly dependent on the way you did this
investigation. The presence or absence of volcanic
tremor, or of local seisms, among the events
observed should be a useful guide to the chances
of an eruption from that volcano occurring in the
near future, although as noted above, magma can be
moving around within a voloano and the volcano can
be generating looal seisms, but never erupt. Use
Below are soma illustrations of the various seiswia
signals that you can expect to receive when using
This is an example of a looal seism.
lota tha sharp and intense beginning of the seismic
wave form, the lack of a second arrival, and the
fairly regular decay of the wave form.
This is an example of a teleseisw Cone that
originated at a great distance from the seismograph],
flote the distinct first and second arrivals, of tha
primary Cpush-pull'] and secondary waves,
respectively. The secondary waves appear as
sideways waves as in a rope that is supported at
one end. flote also that the wave fora dies away
slowly, because of the way energy is spread out '
within the earth.
This is an example of volcanic Cor harmonic]
tremor, the hind of seismic signal that volaanoas
produce when magma is Moving within their 'plumbing
systems", flote the abrupt beginning and end of the
wave form, and its very regular character, with little
change in either intensity or frequency.
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
fllap of Ulrangelia
. 1 . .1 ■ . 1 . . 1 . . 1 . •. 1 . » 1 . . 1 » . 1 . . 1 > nX/ si' "■X-' -X* si* sX" sX/ \X/ %X/ -X 1 sXy -X^
^p. ^p. «*^. <^> .■•p. .'•p. ■T* * *^P» ^r* *^* -"i" "T* •*T** "T* • T *
(lap of UJi angelia
. i . . i j < i . . i . « . i » » Li «x * %Xy \X^ *X » « I * \X* %X»» \X^ \X>" -X" sXv >X> »i« sX^ sL 1 sX 1
■r^. «*^. •*p i « •*T > " ■X' *^r* *^r* *^P* "^P* *^p* ^i* **t^ ^> "^P* ^i* *^P* "^r* *^r" * i ■
* X ' * J. * ■!' * .A * ■ X ° * I * ■ 1 • sX/ • 1 ■ • 1 ■ \JL* '"X." * X '
■^p» -^T" ■^T* •^P" ""i* "T" ^i* •T'* ^T* *T* *^n* ^T* ^T"»
Eleotrioal Qonduotivity Hear a Volcano:
The purpose of this investigation is to detect
zones of unusual electrical conductivity, which may
indicate the existence of shallow magma chambers.
Background : Host rocks are good electrical
insulators Cor poor electrical conductors, which is
just another way of saying the same thing]. However,
there are some earth materials that exhibit unusually
large conductivities. They include: 13 ore minerals of
many hinds, and 33 magma Cwhich conducts electricity
far better than do common rocks}. Thus, if one can
measure electrical conductivity on a broad scale, it
becomes possible to search for either
eoonomioally-minable ore bodies or for shallow magma
chambers. It is difficult to find deep magma chambers
with this kind of survey, because the conductivity
anomalies they cause tend to merge into anomalies
formed in other ways, but if Cas is the case for
most of lilrangeliaJ you can be fairly sure that ore
bodies are not common enough in the area surveyed
to confuse the picture, it is a good approach to
detecting shallow magma chambers.
Method : One of the most useful methods of
determining electrical conductivity on an appropriate
scale is to lay out a loop of thick electrical cable,
put an electrical pulse through if which generates a
strong magnetic pulse, and observe in detail how that
magnetic pulse interacts with the Earth. Field
magnetometers are fairly inexpensive and easy to
carry around, and it is best to set up the loop and
the eleotrioal generator Cusually truck-mounted] in
one location near the center of the area you want
to survey, then to move the magnetometers around.
The truck is stopped at a number of locations
and records the results of transmitting a series of
magnetic pulses. H small computer is usually set up
in the truck, along with the rest of the equipment
that is required, and "□hams" on the data as theq
are radioed in from each of the magnetometer
stations in turn.
Kith this approach, qour surveq team can build
up a model of the electrical conductivity anomalies
as theq are working. When theq decide theq have
been awaq from town long enough, and have ample
data to impress qou with what a good a job theq
have done, theq can pull stakes Creallq. pick up the
big loop of wire].
You will get a report of where conductivity
anomalies have been found. Vou must then interpret
those anomalies or their absence. Neep in mind that
not everq volcano with a shallow magma chamber will
erupt in the near future, and that volcanoes maq
erupt bq drawing magma from deep sources, that qou
cannot detect with this kind of investigation.
Tiltmeter surveq of a volcano:
The purpose of this investigation is to find
patterns of short-term swelling or deflation of a
volcano, which help predict eruptions.
Background : It magma is added to or withdrawn
from a shallow magma chamber, the ground surface
above the chamber swells or deflates. Many
volcanoes have magma chambers within or just below
the pile of erupted material that forms their visible
struoture. Magma flowing into such chambers from
deeper sources just before an eruption will cause
the volcano to swell, and magma moving through a
"plumbing system" from one chamber to another will
cause deflation of one part and inflation of another
part of the volcano. For instance, in a Hawaiian-type
shield volcano magma transfer from beneath the
central caldera to a rift zone can be tracked by
measuring the shape of the volcano, and such
measurements help to predict when magma might begin
erupting from fissures in the rift zone. But don't be
fooled — volcanoes do not always swell measurably
before eruptions; volcanoes drawing on deep magma
reservoirs usually erupt without noticeable swelling.
Sometimes the swelling oan give a very detailed
picture of magma movement, fin example is the
swelling of the north side of St. St. Helens during
March. April, and Hay of 1880. because a shallow
intrusive done was forming beneath the surface.
Sliding of the rock masses above that dome off the
flank of the volcano triggered the destructive
eruption of IS maq 1880.
Method : Volcanic deformation used to be
measured bq establishing baselines like the ones that
surveqors use. then remeasuring them everq few
daqs. Prowling around on the flanks of active
volcanoes with surveyor's transits made geologists'
spouses and insurance agents unhappq. so filtmeters
were invented. H tiltmeter measures the tilt of the
ground it is standing on. usually by bouncing a laser
beam off a precisely-located distant refleotor. and
telemeters by radio a record of ground tilting to a
central receiving station. These records are then
analyzed by a computer, to provide a picture of how
the voloano is deforming. Onaa a tiltmeter is installed
Coften bij geologists in a helicopter, so they can
leave in a hurry if neoessarq], it generally requires
no further attention for many months. Of course, a
large eruption can destroy many or most of the
tiltmatars on a voloano. and if it seems that the
volcano will continue to be active, they should then
It may. under certain circumstances, be difficult
to find volunteers to go bach to replace damaged or
missing tiltmeters. If you are unable to locate
volunteers, you probably don't need tiltmeters to tell
you that something dramatic is going on!
Analysis of Bases Emitted by a Volcano:
The purpose of this investigation is to use
compositions of volcanic gases as guides to the
chance that the voloano mill erupt.
Baohground : Dormant and active volcanoes emit
gases with compositions that can be very different
from that of the atmosphere. These gases are
usually mainly steam, from water percolating through
the porous rooks typical of most volcanoes that is
heated and escapes in fumaroles or steam vents. But
if substantial quantities of magma are present dose
to the vents from which the gases are escaping,
then the gases can be quite rich in other
Important magmatio gas components include
carbon dioxide and especially sulfur dioxide. If the
gases have reacted chemically at high temperatures,
without much reaction at lower temperatures to
obscure the high-temperature imprint, hqdrogen and
carbon monoxide maq be present in considerable
amounts. Both the proportions of the various
compounds in the volcanic gases, and their amounts
maq be useful in predicting volcanic activity. The
proportions of the compounds are usually expressed
as tons per daq and calculated from the composition
of a relatively small sample and an estimate of the
total flow rate.
Method : In order to sample volcanic gases, you
Cor. more likely, some member of your team that you
view as more expendable} must approach the volcanic
vents quite closely and poke into the gas stream a
long tube connected through a valve to a sampling
reservoir. The reservoir was first pumped down to a
respectable vacuum, and when the sampling geologist
opens the valve, some of the gas stream is sucked
into the reservoir. The valve is then closed, and the
gas sample is rushed to a laboratory equipped to
analqze it. CSpeed is required so the gases do not
have much chance to react with one another or with
the walls of the reservoir, and change their
compositions.] Qloves. protective suits, and gas
masks are fashionable Cor. if you want to stay on
good terms with your insurance agent, required]
wear for the sampling geologist, and it is prudent to
paq some attention to what the volcano is doing, to
minimize the risk that the geologist will be
incorporated into the products of the vent. However,
this investigation is really quite safe, in the opinions
of most team leaders.
The results will be reported by the analytical
laboratory as a general description of the gases
found, with estimates of tons per day emitted by the
volcano that was surveyed. Because of uimer f ainties
in the whole process, these estimates are a bit up in
the air. Proportions of ntagniatio gases are likely to
be wore useful to you as guides to the state of the
volcano than are the estimates of the total amounts
released by the volcano.
Hues of Noahs from a Volcano:
Background: Volcanoes often fall into an
apparent pattern of activity, with some tendency to
repeat whatever they have been accustomed to do in
the past. Of course, it is easy to over-emphasize
the regularity of these patterns, both because of
wishful thinking and because of the human tendency
to "see" regular patterns even when they do not
exist. Still, it is useful to know about the past
activity of a volcano when one is trying to guess
what it will do. Even in a region that has been
settled for a long time by humans accustomed to
keeping written records, the time scales on which we
can view historic volcanic activity are short
compared to the time scales on which many
volcanoes pass through their "life cycles'". Earth
scientists have invented many ways of determining
ages of volcanic materials, such as lavas, to try to
deal with difficulties posed by the comparatively brief
human perspective. Techniques based on the decay
of radioactive isotopes in rocks or minerals, or on
other features such as luminescence of minerals, can
be applied to rocks collected from voloanoes in your
Bathed 1 You have some experts in determining
ages of volcanic rocks on your team, or available to
you because they are part of the staff of the
Hge-Reasurements Laboratory of Project Qentral. so
you don't have to know a lot about the details of the
methods they use. They will work on any volcano to
which you direct their attentions, and will report to
you the ages they have determined that lie between
1.000 and 8.000 years B.P. C"B.P." means "before the
present"!. In many respects, it is easier to
determine ages of older rooks, but those ages are
of little use to you in predicting volcanic activity
within the immediate future, so the Hge-flleasurements
Laboratory has concentrated Cquite successfully!] on
refining techniques for determining ages of young
In the past, when you have asked the experts
on your team or at Project Qentral what the reported
ages mean, they began arguing with one another, and
if is many hours before you get any answers that
make any sense, if ever. Consequently when you see
a plot of ages determined for a specific volcano, it
is probably best to try to figure out for yourself
what they might indicate. Look for the following kinds
of features: Qo the ages seem to clump in some way.
or are they scattered in time without any
recognizable pattern? fire there lots of young ages,
close to 1.000 to 3.000 or so years B.P.? Or has
most of the prehistoric activity of your volcano
occurred longer ago? Mow many rooks were found to
have ages in the interval between 8.000 and 1.000
years B.P.? Looking at the data in this way is not
likely to give you conclusive answers about what that
volcano will do. but it may help.
Volcanoes Instructor /User Manual
Introduction and General Information:
This Manual contains suggestions about
strategies for use of Uolaanoas. suggestions for a
prelesson. a preuse test and a post use test fo
assess student learning, discussions of useful
literature, and background information for each of
the major investigations, lie have assumed that you
have read the documentation. If you have not done
so. please shim it now...
Some possible benefits of using Uofoartoes ®
OafuMe or Vo/aanoes^
R. General Attitudes:
— Cooperation in dealing with severe
— Acceptance of ambiguity in observational
Willingness to make decisions based on
— Prudent budgeting of resources Cmoney.
— Understanding and acceptance of
different interests which result in
different occupational choices.
--Reading improvement, though less in this
version than in the old
—Use of House CBS] and accurate typing
on computer keyboard CHpple II and P. CD
— Qareful record-keeping/note taking
— Interpretations of scientific observations
—Use of maps
— Use of Cartesian coordinates
--Interpretations of histograms Cbar
—Understanding of Earth's crust and origin
of volcanic pipes
— types of volcanoes
—volcanic terminology with regard to
products of eruptions
— volcanic terminology, with regard to
—geography where in the "real world" the
various volcanic types may be found
—methods and results of remote sensing
Infrared Scan — infrared emission;
heat flow; effects of urban
settlements on surface
Seismic Survey — types of seismic
waves; effects of contrasts in
wave velocities; generation of
earthquakes; harmonic signals
caused by motion of a fluid in a
Electrical Conductivity" -contrasts
in electrical conductivity;
relationship among electrical and
--methods and results of other
Tiltmeter Survey — use of lasers
to measure distances and angles;
deformation of volaanio edifices
because of sub-surface movement
Oas Analysis - chemical reactions
among gases as a function of
temperatures; chemical Nineties
Hges of Rocks--the concept that
ages of geologic events can be
numerically estimated; recognition
of episodicity in volcanic activity
Maximizing gain from use of the program at home or
in the classroom:
In many instances the information or activities
required to acquire the above benefits and/or skills
are onlq implicit in Uofaano&sG*. and qou must
highlight them for qour students. Vour judgement of
how much qour students are readq to learn should,
of course, dictate how much enhancement of the
educational value of the program qou mill do. (Bear
in mind that statistics show teachers usuallq
underestimate the amount of material students can
learn.] In our experience with using Uoloanoes in
this waq. students tend to be readq to learn more
than we have expected.
Strategies for the Use of Uofeanoes&
flote that, as in mqths of maq hinds
Voluanoes^ requires the participant to enter an
imagined world, one in which the "rules of the game"
make sense within their own context but differ from
those of the real world. In the real world, children
do not get to direct research teams, charged with
the awesome responsibility of predicting volcanic
eruptions, for instance.
IHqths are universal in human cultures and
alwaqs have as one of their primary functions that of
imparting attitudes of central importance in the
culture. We have planned Uo/aanoes& to impart
attitudes that we are convinced are indeed of
central importance in our culture, but manq of these
attitudes contradict signals qour students receive
stronglq from other sources.
For instance. UolaanoBsG) aan be plaqed
competifivelq. but is designed to reward cooperation.
It is deliberately designed so that qou maq decide
to use some combination of shill indices and budgets
to decide who "wins". Ule suggest that qou use the
shill indices as that is the more important factor.
Vou maq wish to discuss this decision with qour
students, if theq are mature enough.
There is a widespread perception in our culture
that scientists use arcane fools to discover totally
unambiguous knowledge. Ua/aano&s& attacks this
mis-conception head-on. and teaches both that
observations of complex natural sqstems inevitablq
generate ambiguity, and that one must nevertheless
make important decisions basad upon those
observations and whatever interpretations can be
made of them. (He have tried to shout a human side of
science, in which fallible scientists use powerful
tools but don't always understand the implications of
tha information thaq gat tharabij. Thai's a varq olose
approximation of tha real world, and it is worth
pointing out to qour students the contrast between
reality and mis-conceived myth.
Some vlTHL information for playing tha game:
Qhildren are commonly advised to budget
prudently, yet they are also bombarded by
inducements to buy things that they don't need.
Volcanoes is designed so that anqone who plays
recklessly, undertaking many investigations without
thinking carefully about what they contribute to her
or his understanding of probabilities of eruption, will
do poorly. But if is also designed so that a plainer
who hoards her or his budget will generally fail to
predict well, owing to lack of information. Vou should
encourage your students to plan their work, and
remind them that their budgets will be replenished at
the beginning of each turn. The provincial maps show
locations of volcanoes relative to concentrations of
population; ask your students to use that information
to decide which volcanoes they will study first, and
(lot all kinds of volcanoes are equally
hazardous, and not all investigations are equally
well-suited for studying different kinds of volcanoes.
Hndesitio composite cones have a relatively great
potential for destructive eruptions, although some
cinder cones, because of their locations, bear
watching with care. Basaltic shield volcanoes erupt
frequently but rarelq do much damage or cause
fatalities. Both andesitic cones and basaltic
volcanoes develop shallow magma chambers, which
can be defected bq those investigations that are
well adapted for that purpose. Oinder cones
commonlq erupt magma drawn from magma chambers at
depths of ten kilometres or more. Vou maq wish to
discuss with qour students the implications of that
In qour olassCesJ. the student to computer ratio
is probablq fairlq large. If so. qou can either divide
the class into teams to plaq Uolaanoes& with each
member of a team assigned a specific responsibility,
or divide the class info small groups that will work
with the computer in turn. The first approach
emphasizes cooperation and group discussion while
the second maq be too trqing upon the patience of
qour students. Be recommend the first approach,
though it maq take more planning and organization on
Suggested roles for team use of Uoiaanoes ® =
keqboard operator, mapper for the Infrared Scan;
recorder of seismic data. etc. fill or some of these
maq rotate, if qou desire. The teams maq decide in
advance which investigations to do. how to set
warning levels, or to have a team captain who
delegates authority on a rotating basis, file
recommend that teams be no larger than four
because if there are more, it would be harder for
them to agree on what to do.
Evaluating the learning from use of the program:
Perhaps the best uiau, to review what has
been learned would be to assign a project Ci.e.
create model land-forms or some other non-verbal
method of assessment] rather than tests. Students
with marginal reading skills mau, encounter special
difficulties both in plaijing the game and in faking the
tests. We have data showing outstanding gains bu,
slow readers when placed in a cooperative situation
with brighter students. In anq event, the above
methods mau, help slower students and the onlu, wau,
to find out is to tru, them.
Pre lesson Before Using Volcanoes® in the
Qlassroom — Elementary to College Information
I. Volcanoes occur where magma Cmelted rochl
reaches Earth's surface from its sources deep within
the earth. The hinds of magma and the compositions
of tha rocks that form in voloanio aativitu,. and the
physical form of the volcanoes and their products.
all help us to understand volcanism.
II. There are three major ttjpes of volcanoes. Their
names tell us something about the hinds of rocks of
which they are composed. CSee glossary for
definitions of compositions. J
a. Hndesitic volcanoes are made of andesite.
The word is pronounced: andisitic and an dis ite.
respectively The last sellable of the second word
has a long "i" sound. It is thought that the word mau,
have orginated in the Andes where rocks of this
tu,pe are in great abundance.
b. Basaltic shield volcanoes are made of basalt.
This word has a short V sound in both words.
c. Binder cones are made up of cinders which
are usually basaltic in chemical composition. The
chemical composition of the lava is the same as
basalt. Onlu, the form is different in cinder cones;
cinders have been exploded into the air. and fall
near the vent to form a steep-sided cone. Basaltic
lavas that form shield volcanoes typically are very
"runnij" when erupted and build up volcanoes with
broad, gentle slopes. See glossary for further
description of the forms lava takes when extruded.
III. Here are some mountain profiles labeled H. B. Q.
It. Here you might ash the students about uihether
they have lived close to active volcanoes or
traveled to see them? If so, uihich types have they
seen? Ci.e Hawaiian = shield volcanoes. Pacific
riorthwest = andesitic. dmerican Scuthuiest cinder
U. Uihich profile best describes Kit. St. Helens? Uihich
profile best describes the Hawaiian volcanoes? Are
fhe magmas the same? Ban you give the reason why
theu, may not be the same? CHnswer: "H" for fhe first
and "B" for the second. The magmas are not the
same as one is andesitic while the other is basaltic.
The location of the volcanoes is important and you
might mention the "hot spat" under the Hawaiian
islands. However, ute expect mostly that students
should be looking to differentiate between basically
continental volcanoes which form chains and basaltic
"rim" volcanoes such as those of Iceland.]
HI. People trained to study volcanoes are called
volcanologists. Uolcanologists studu. volcanoes to try,
to find out if theu, are apt to erupt in the near
Ull. The Seismic Survey is an investigation frequently
done on volcanoes. They are the result of Earth
crustal movements. CPhotocopy the section of the
documentation booklet showing what the various
signals look like or draw them and have the students
die envision that there are two levels of
instruction with regard to understanding this
concept. In the earlier grades students may just
have to recognize which seism theu, are seeing but
in advanced classes the underlying principles of this
and fhe other investigations may, be delt with in more
detail. Uery advanced students may wish not only to
discuss how stresses build up in the Earth but might
wish to build a model of what happens along a fault.
II brief explanation of earthquake/volcanic
occurances along lines of subduction zones might be
given at this time. For any students the analogy
between lightning/thunder Cfast and slow waves,
respectively, arising from a single natural event] and
the arrivals of p waves and s-waves from a distant
earthquake to create a record of a teleseism is
till. The rest of the investigations, or an
appropriate selection from them, should be introduced
and explained. For the Hpple II series of computers
the word "code" may need to be explained. This
word is used when a student is asked to choose an
investigation or a volcano. The "code" is displayed
immediately to the left of the choice on the screen.
In the old version of Volcanoes®, you may change
your mind by using the left pointing arrow to go
over your choice before hitting "return". Once you
hit "return" you have no chance to change your mind
as fhe computer is acting upon your instructions.
Also, you may re-enter the game if you are fired by
simply typing in your name or a new name. Vou
receive a new budget and a new skill index at that
time and can continue to play the game with
Use of the Pre test
We expect you to present the class with a
non-preparation test soon after introducing the
pre lesson. This test should help you to see where
u,our students are and establish a baseline for
working with your students. You may use the pre test
we have written, if it is suitable.
Volcanoes Around the world
The following list is only a partial list of
volcanoes around the world because there are more
than 500 of them. If we count those that are dormant
or recently extinct, the number would be closer to
several thousand. The volcanic belts are also the
principal earthquake belts of the earth. Theu, are
primarily situated along the areas of weakness in the
earth's crust which has fractures or faults. In
general these areas of weaknesses seem to be
around the rims of the ocean basins. This is the
territory which borders such basins or the range of
mountains which forms the boundaries of the
continents, [...or in prehistoric times formed the
boundaries of the continents. } Some of these are
now enclosed inside the continents.
with a photocopy of a map of the world, draw a
line around the rim of the Pacific Ocean beginning in
South America, through the Andes Mountains up
through Central America, Mexico and the western part
of the United States to Canada and Alaska. From
there go west toward the Aleutian chain of islands to
Asia and then south through Kamchatka. Japan, and
the Philippines, the Moluccas, lorth Hebrides, lew
Zealand and South Victoria. Another great belt
extends east and west. This begins in Central
America, extends through the West Indies; then
through the Atlantic by the Azores. Cape Uerde and
the Canary Islands. It runs through the
Mediterranean, through Asia Minor and Arabia, and
continues along the chain of the East Indies where it
crosses the other line which uou just drew
encircling the Pacific and runs out into the Pacific
at this point. Vou now have enclosed within uour two
lines a vast number of the most active volcanoes of
the world, within your somewhat circular chain. u,ou
have the Hawaiian Islands. There are manu, submarine
volcanoes located in the Pacific Ocean. Manu, of the
volcanoes that now form islands began life as
submarine volcanoes far beneath the sea.
The American hemisphere has more active
volcanoes than elsewhere. The two active volcanoes
in the United States are Mt. St. Helens and Lassen
Peak. Since the eruption of St. Helens, other
"extinct'" volcanoes have had their status revised to
dormant. Kamchatka in the Soviet Union. Japan
( Fujiyama J. the Philippines, and lew Zealand have
active volcanoes. Hawaiian volcanoes continue to
provide entertainment but at present only two are
In the Straits of Sunda. Nrakatao stands as
mute evidence of a tremendous eruption that affected
the climate of the world. COiscussion of this
occurance could form the basis for a paper. 3
Iceland is the most important of the Atlantic
centers. From twenty to twenty five volcanoes have
been in eruption there on an almost continuous
basis, with a large number being from fissures.
Europe has its Vesuvius and Etna. There are
manij volcanoes in Africa also on the east and west
sides of the continent. Volcanoes appear to exhist
also along the border between Asia and Europe — the
Thian Shan Range. Paricutin. in Mexico, is the most
famous new volcano and is distinguished by having
been observed since its beginnng in 1913. Hlso in
Mexico. Popocatapetl [The name means "smoking
mountain".!] continues to belch sulfurous vapor from
time to time, a reminder that the volcano may only, be
sleeping. Klany parts of the world have volcanoes
which are still classed as active. In flew Zealand
there are Kit. flgauruhoe. Hit. Ruapehu. and Tangariiro
which have not erupted recently.
This accounting is only a brief picture of the
scope of the volcanoes which make up the rim of
fire around our ocean basins. Should you desire that
the students learn more about volcanoes, they could
explore the eruptive history of some of the more
famous volcanoes mentioned here.
Qlossary of (lew Terms for Upgraded Volcanoes
Ha~- is a type of lava flow which appears as jagged
or broken blocks.
flndesitic Volcano - is a volcano built principally of
andesite. an igneous rock with composition
between basalt Cpoor in silica] and
rhijolite [silica-rich J. Hndesites occur as
lava flows and as pyroclastic materials
Csuch as volcanic ash] erupted from
volcanoes that are usually located near
the edges of continents.
Hsh — is a fine-grained material formed as a result
of volcanic explosions. This material mau, be
erupted high into the air and then fall to form a
bedded sediment on the ground, or if may be
deposited from a seething turbulent ash flow
that moves close to the ground. In the latter
case, the ash deposit usually lacks prominent
bedding [it is unstratified] and can retain
enough heat so that the fragments weld
together after it is deposited, to form an
ignimbrite [welded ash-flow tuff].
Hsh flow — refers to the movement of small solid rock
particles along the Earth's surface rather than
in cloud form in the air.
Hsthenosphere — a portion of the upper mantle,
generally 73 to 173 km below the earth's
surface where the rooks flow freely owing to
temperature and pressure.
Basalt— H line-grained, sometimes glassq. basis
Csilioa -poor, iron and magnesium r ich] igneous
roch. Basalts are generally associated with
oceanic volcanism. as opposed to the andesites
which are associated with the margins of
continents. Basalts ara thought to hava formed
as partial melts deep within the bowels of the
Batholith — This is the largest of intrusive igneous
bodies usually more than 40 square miles at the
uppermost surface. This matter is molten when
deposited but becomes solidified over time.
Usually it is at the center of an intrusive
bodij and may onlq be exposed bq erosion.
Bombs- are large missiles of lava elected explosively
from a volcano while still in the molten
state. These lava missiles acquire a rounded
shape bq being thrown through the air.
Galdera — This is a large crater, which maq form in
several waqs. the most common of which is
collapse during a large volcanic eruption.
Binder Gone — This is a conical hill or small mountain,
often with a truncated fop in which is a
bowl-shaped crater. It forms bq deposition of
cinders around a more or less circular vent
during moderatelq explosive eruptions. Lava maq
erupt from the central crater or maq break out
at the base.
Gore — the central or innermost portion of the earth.
Grater — a bowl or funnel shaped depression which
has been the outlet for the volcanic magma.
Grust — the outer rigid portions of the earth.
Epi center — The point on the Earth's surface directlq
above the focus of an earthquake Cthe focus of
an earthquake is the zone within the Earth in
which rooks break and shift to cause the
Eruption R volcanic event which is the direct result
of movement of magma Cmolten rock] beneath the
Extrusive rocks ejected directlq onto the surface
of the Earth.
Fire Founfaining — Streams of lava shot skqward from
a vent owing to the force of expanding gases
that are being released from the magma as it
approaches the surface. This structure is
usually an elongated vent called a "fissure".
Igneous— rocks formed from the molten state, either
intrusive or extrusive.
Ignimbrites — These rocks are formed bq the welding
or sticking together of still-plastic bits of
glass and pumice in deposits of hot fragmenfal
material. Flows which produce these deposits
are called ash flows, and an alternative name
for ignimbrite is welded ash-flow tuff. Hsh-flow
tuffs need not be welded, however, if theq were
deposited while cool. Deposits from mud flows,
called lahars. sometimes have features like
those of ignimbrites. fill these kinds of
fragmental flows can be verq destructive.
Intrusive — These are rochs that form from the molten
state but which solidifq below the surface
of the earth.
Island Hros — These are volcanic islands, generally in
arcurate rows, major features of which are
chains of andesitic volcanoes.
Lahars — Fragmental deposits formed from mud flows
that sweep rapidlu, down volcanic slopes, usually
more-or-less confined to stream valleys draining
the volcanic edifice. Lahars often are directlu,
associated with an eruption Ce.g.. the mud flow
and lahar of the great eruption of flit. St.
Helens on 18 fllau, 19803. but sometimes form
when overlij-steep volcanic slopes lubricated bq
rain or melting ice break loose in the absence
of eruptive activitq.
Lava -fllolten roah Cgenerallq containing dissolved
gases] which issues from Earth's inferior onto
the surface of the Earth.
Lithosphere the crust and upper mantle which is
located above the asthenosphere and is
believed to include the plates.
Magma — all of the extruded materials which come out
of a volcano. These include the gases, liquids,
Mantle — That portion of the earth between the crust
and the core.
Mohorovicic discontinuity fllloho] — the boundary
between the crust and the mantle.
Pahoehoe--a type of lava flow which has a ropy
Pyroolastio — Materials thrown out by a volcano in a
fragmentary form, either a solid or a liquid, are
called "fire broken" or pyroclastic.
Rift Zones — These are elongated areas of fissures,
formed where rocks are affected by stretching
of the Earth's crust. These serve as
ohannelways to bring magma to the surface.
Seismograph — Hn instrument designed to measure the
movement of the ground during an earthquake,
modern seismographs telemeter their results to
a central location where the data are analyzed
to find out what kind of earthquake has been
observed, and where if originated.
Seismogram — H record of the different kinds of
waves that occur in an earthquake. Each type
of wave moves through the Earth in a different
way. and conveys different information about the
materials through which it moves.
Shield Volcano-Through the repeated outpourings of
fluid lava around a vent a cone aan be
constructed. In shield volcanoes, these cones
have a low. broad profile with a small crater or
caldera in the top. However, if the viscosity of
the lava erupted increases, or if cinders are
erupted, a small steeper-sided central cone
develops, so that the volcano looks like a huge
Viking shield laid on the ground. [Shield
volcanoes were given that name in Iceland.]
Sial" the upper and lighter granitic portions of the
Earth's crust. The name refers to the
composition of the material, mainly silica and
Sima- refers to the heavier basaltic portions of the
earth's crust. The name refers to the
composition of the material, mainly magnesium
Strato-voloano an intermediate type of volcano built
up of lavas and fragmentals [from more
Tuff Hsh deposits which are consolidated and in
which the fragments are no larger than 2 cm.
Bibliography supplement for Volcanoes
Hylsworth. Thorn- Geological Disasters
Bullard. Fred (1. -Volcanoes of the Earth
Coleman. Satis-Volcanoes, Dew and Old
Decher. Robert Ml. Uolcanoes
Nruger. Christopher 6 Others-Volcanoes. CP. Putman
fc Sons, lew Vorh, cl970. ISSp.
Lambert. fll.B — Volcanoes, published by the fllinistru, of
Supply and Services in Canada. cl978 Et
1980. SI p.
Ritfmann. H. E L. --Volcanoes. GS.P. Putnam's Sons, fleu
Vorh. cl97q. 128 p.
Shangle. Robert D. Volcano - The First Seventy
Days. Ht. St. Helens. 1980. Beautiful
America Publishing. 18p.
Tazieff. Haroun-Oraters of Fire. Harper E Brothers,
lent Vorh. clS33. 239p.
Tazieff. Haroun-Dyiragongo. the Forbidden Volcano.
Barron's/Woodbury. Dew Vorh, copyright
1973 drench edition] and 1979. 383p.
Editors of Time-Life Boohs Planet Earth. Volcano.
Alexandria. Virginia. cl882. 17Sp.
IDilcoNson. hent H. - Chains of Fire. The Story of
Volcanoes. Chilton Boohs. Philadelphia and
Dew Vorh. cl9SB. 23Sp.
Uilliams. Howell--The Hncient Volcanoes of Oregon.
Oregon State System of Higher Education.
Eugene. Oregon. c!9S2. B9p.
Dumerous magazines exhist which feature articles on
volcanoes from time to time. It is
impossible to heep trach of all of the
publications and so we are listing a few
here. Among the most noted are Dational
Geographic, Datural History. Dature.
Discover. Scientific American. Ranger Rich
Uolcanoes® is a registered
trademark of Earthuiare
lolcanoes®. upon which this
product is based is
copyright 1981. 1987 and
lolcanoes® Deluxe is
copyright 1987 bu,
Services. ripple IIBS is a
registered trademark of
Flpple Computer. Inc. Flpple
Computer. Inc. makes no
warranties whatsoever for
this product. Earthware®
describes its warranto,
elsewhere in this booklet.
Uolaanoes*> is 8 registered
trademark ol Earlhuaro
UolaanoesB. upon ahiah Ibis
product is basod is
oopurieht ISS1. 1387 and
Volcanoes® Deluxe is
copqriehl 1387 bq
Services. Rppla IICS is a
registered trademark ol
Rppla Computer. Inc. Hppla
Computer. Inc. makes no
warranties whatsoever lor
this product. Esrlhnare®
describes Its uarrantu,
Isaahera in Ibis booklet.
Newsletter of Earthware® Products
Volcanoes® Deluxe ior tne PC ana Apple liGS*
Graphic depiction of the "classic" Apple II product in ujhich
students inuestigate simulated uolcanic situations and predict
eruptions. Teaches deductiue reasoning, map reading skills,
cooperation, etc. Used in applied physics, geology, and geography
courses internationally. Suggested retail $59.95. Netuuor kabte.
Uolcanoes® Apple II series
for the Apple is a less graphic
uersion of Uolcanoes® DeluKe.
It is a simulation in game format
ushich has been highly successfully
used. Single copies $49.50.
Lab packs only: $110 ea.
A planetary exploration
game for use in
earth science, astronomy,
general science courses
etc. Listed in NASA
catalog. Single $45.
Final EKam ...
This is a test or drill-making package tuhich supports graphics
and enables either paper or machine testing. Scores are displayed
at end of machine test. Price — $29.95
Final Ehh ffi Professional ***************** ************************
Replacement for aboue Final Exam. Complete drawing system
permits graphics anywhere on page. Data analysis of test
questions. Question linking. Picture answers as ixrell as tent.
$59.95. Available for Apple lie, He and GS by Fall 1988 and for
PC January 1989.
I usish to order:
Uolcanoes® Deluxe 6S
Uolcanoes® Deluxe PC
Uolcanoes® Lab Packs
Final Exam Professional
Distributed by Softkat through fine daalers everywhere!
Or order directly from us. Uisa'MC, C O.D , Per Ck., or Schl P
Final Exam Apple II
Star Search® Lab Packs
Uolcanoes ® Apple II
Earthware® Computer Services
P.O. Box 30039
Eugene, OR 97403
Tel. -(503) 344-3303
♦ Uolcanoes Deluxe PC requires CGA, Apple DC 6S requires 1.2 Meg RAM